While touring Finland on the Seenig the Forest AND the Trees productivity tour, UPM’s Jim Marshall posted “Marshall’s Musings” to the VFVC Blog. Peter Bundy read the post and asked Jim, “What exactly is “Finnish forest cluster” and what silvicultural practices did you observe that we should be implementing here in MN? ”

Jim has penned responses to Peter’s good questions. Here they are:

1. What exactly is Finnish forest cluster?

Looking at the Finnish Forest Industries Federation website, I found this definition, which is good. One can also look at the link to see more.

The Finnish definition of forest cluster is broad covering all the important actors networking with each other, and this is where its strength lies. The forest, chemical and technology industries as well as the media and packaging sectors together with forest-owners


2. What silvicultural practices did you observe that we should be implementing here in MN?

a) I would love to see us do more pre-commercial thinning (spacing) and cleaning in our young forests (both mixed species and pure balsam fir, jack pine). Resulting acceleration of growth to merchantable size is amazing, versus doing nothing. The opportunity is large; conceivably 50,000+ acres every year, if we consider the mixed-wood aspen/hardwood/conifer stands that arise following typical Minnesota harvests.

b) More commercial thinning–this covers a broad array from high-value hardwood management (oak system is different from maple/basswood) to spruce and pine plantations, to aspen and other mixed species. The concept is to capture the mortality and invigorate the remaining trees for more healthy growth. INTERMEDIATE TREATMENTS is one of the five focus areas that emerged from the Blandin Foundation VFVC group learning trips. This team wants to develop a white paper on the benefits of release, pre-commercial thinning, and commercial thinning that would address not only timber benefits but other benefits such as wildlife, I & D, and biodiversity. They also recommend continuing the Ecosystem Management Course, and they propose future research on the ecological and economic issues associated with intermediate treatments.

c) Finally, I would suggest, we need to adopt the most sophisticated modeling possible, depending on landowner capacity to use these tools, as a defensible means of harvesting more of our forests when they become mature, vs. waiting till they are way past biological and economic maturity. Time after time, when we evaluate public and private timber for possible purchase of stumpage, we have to reject parcels based on the very poor wood quality (primarily aspen and balsam fir rot). When walking through blow-down balsam, I often think, “this should have been sold 10 or 15 years
ago!” With proper modeling, fewer of these stands would slip through the cracks in large land owning organizations.

As an illustration of the problem in (2c), please see these photographs of an 80+ year old aspen/birch/balsam/spruce stand in Itasca County.


Thanks for the questions, Peter!

Jim Marshall